Category: maxilofacial surgery

Jaw Cyst

Jaw Cyst

Jaw cyst is a cavity which is filled with fluid or soft material. It is basically, lined by an epithelium. The fluid exerts pressure which is internal for the cyst and therefore there is growth of the cyst. Cyst in the human body are most prevalent in the jaws i.e. maxilla and mandible. So jaw cysts are the most important pathological disorders in dentistry.For more details,please login to

Tooth impactions and various dental infections increase the chances of the occurrence of jaw cysts.

Jaw cysts are mainly classified into odontogenic and non-odontogenic cysts. Non-odontogenic cysts are also called as developmental cysts. Some of the important and commonly occurring odontogenic jaw cysts are radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst. Developmental jaw cysts are further classified into cysts of jaws, cysts including the soft tissues and cysts with unknown etiology. Nasopalatine duct cyst is the most common developmental cyst.

Cysts of the jaws are of great importance because they usually do not show any prominent signs and symptoms. They come into the picture once they are secondarily infected. In case, the cyst has not expanded beyond the anatomical structures in and around the jaws there is no prominence seen externally by the dentist. So it becomes quite difficult to diagnose the presence of any cyst. Due to increased pressure a part of cortical plate is also affected in the initial stages. Then with the progression of the cyst it becomes prominent externally in the later stages. A cyst can become acutely infected due to which there can be discharge of the pus into the oral cavity. This causes some discomfort to the patient in the later stages. There will be no altered sensation when the cyst expands slowly. Inferior alveolar nerve supplies the lower lip and chin. So, due to the increase in the size of the cyst, the inferior alveolar canal gets covered in the later stages. In the cysts of aggressive nature, the sensation of the nerves in the area of the cysts is badly affected.

The diagnosis of the cysts in the jaws is done with the help of the radiographs. The preferred radiographic methods are routine radiographs. On the radiographs, the cyst is seen dark i.e. radiolucent and the boundaries are seen as white line i.e. radiopaque around the dark areas. This provides a clear look and easy diagnosis of the cyst in the jaws. Aspirating fluid from the cyst also helps in diagnosing the presence of the cyst and its type as most of the cysts has characteristic fluid color and texture which can be seen on aspiration.

When the treatment of the cysts is considered then marsupialization and enucleation is considered. Marsupialization involves the creation of the window in the affected area. The fluid or soft content in the cyst is drained and then the window is left to get closed. With time eventually it gets closed on its own. Enucleation is the complete removal of the cyst. In case of large cysts and complicated cases, enucleation is followed by the marsupialization. Curettage is also used with enucleation when there is a need of removal of a part of the surrounding bone.sbc1


Facial Reconstruction

Facial reconstruction is an important aspect of maxillofacial surgery. When any serious facial problem occurs with the patient then the dentists and surgeon prefer for a facial reconstruction procedure. This helps in restoring the precious features and modifying the present condition by turning the appearance of the patient into a positive one. Facial reconstruction is quite common nowadays with various options available to the patients. The advancement of technology in the field of dentistry has made most of the procedures much easier than before. This motivates the patients to undergo the procedure with confidence. For facial reconstruction, experienced surgeons and dentists are appointed in order to get the best results out of the procedure.For more details,please log in to

In the facial reconstruction a team of doctors is appointed which includes plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons and dentists. The procedure usually involves a lot of complications, so the specialists ensure that if any emergency comes up then it can be handled in the minimum time and successfully accomplished. The procedure is very sensitive and can take hours. So to be on the safer side, general anesthesia is given to the patient so as to keep the patient unconscious confirmatively during the whole procedure. The time duration can extend till several hours due to the in depth procedure done by the specialists. As the results are usually much appreciable the hard work given by the team during the procedure is also worth appreciation. The blood supply and tissues of the areas are properly checked and then brought according to the anatomy and functioning ability. When the cases are very complicated involving vital organs then it becomes important for the team to hold patience and then carry out the procedure.

Bone grafting is a commonly done procedure which ensures that the bone loss in the facial region. Bone pieces are taken from the body of the individual. During the procedure bone cut is also done. So prevent the deterioration of the area in which the anatomical structures have been brought to normal condition. Facial reconstruction is very important as the brain in the head is near to the facial structures. Any mistake in the procedure can threaten the life of the patient. So, extreme care is taken by the team of doctors so as to complete the procedure successfully without harming the patient.

The facial reconstruction procedure can lead to the adverse effects like swelling of neck, mouth or face. This can continue for few weeks. The airway of the patient is blocked. So tracheostomy is done on temporary basis. This provides a help to the patient to breath properly. There are risks which are associated with this procedure. So, care must be taken that the patient is not harmed by any step as a small mistake can cost the life of the patient. Facial reconstruction is boon to the patients who wan their esthetics back.Complications of the procedure can be commonly seen in patients having smoking habits, poor nutrition, and nerve damage in the past and poor blood circulation.facial-reconstruction11

Facial Deformity

Facial deformity is the status of the patient in which the normal anatomical structures of the patient have changed aesthetically as well as functionally. Facial deformity is quite commonly used in maxillofacial surgery.For more details,please log in to

Some of the main causes of facial deformity are genetic factors, damage to the fetus during the gestation period, various bone disorders like arthritis, surgeries involving massive exposure of anatomical structures of the body as well as hormone disorder. Cleft lip, cleft palate, severe burns, Treacher Collins syndrome, road traffic accidents, penetrating injury as well as maxillary hypoplasia are the medical conditions which have been seen to be causative factors of facial deformity. Most of these medical conditions have facial deformity as a prime clinical feature. The areas of the facial deformity vary from one medical condition to the other. The area affected is closely related to the causative factor of the facial deformity.

The symptoms of facial deformities can be prominently seen in the patient who has suffered from the above factors. Any abnormalities in the normal features of the human being are considered to be in facial deformity. Moreover, many of the facial deformities are congenital in nature. These facial deformities are present from the time of birth. For instance, cleft lip and cleft palate can be seen and diagnosed just by seeing the newborn just after the birth. The patient is then referred to the dentists for the further treatment in order to avoid any further complications in future. When a facial deformity is caused due to over exposure to radiations for long period of time, then the symptoms will be more superficial. The severity will vary according to the patient’s condition ad affect from the environmental factors.The dentist or physician checks the facial deformity in detail. A good medical history is taken in order to find out some clues and hints which may have been a strong link for the patient’s condition. Many a times, some of the diagnostic points can be found out easily with the help of thorough analysis of the patient. Diagnosis of facial deformities can be done with the radiographs in order to find the cause of the deformity in detail. Radiographs show any internal problem in the affected area. This helps a lot in the whole treatment plan of the patient.

Facial deformities are associated with cases of mortalities which are actually possible in the cases of the patients who have severe facial deformities, chances of getting infectious diseases, increased susceptibility to injuries as well as affect on vital organs.Facial deformities are actually a state of discomfort for the patient suffering with it. So it’s important for the dentist to understand the patient’s psychological state and treat him the best in the least possible time. This will help the patient to gain confidence. Surgery of the affected area is done in order to correct the defects..ContempClinDent_2011_2_3_245_86480_f2 1290577788